"Contexts of L2 Writing"
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana, USA
September 15-16, 2000

ABSTRACTS


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Presenter Title Abstract
Aylin Atakent The Effects of Knowing English Rhetoric on Turkish Students' L1 Writing This paper presents a study carried out at an English medium university in Turkey. It focuses on the effects of teaching English rhetorical pattern on Turkish students' first language expository writing. Anyone interested in the study of contrastive rhetoric is welcome!
Joel Bloch The Threshold in ESL Composition This paper will examine how new technologies may affect second language writers. Based on our recent research the paper will review (1) introducing computers into L2 classrooms; (2) the role of synchronic and asynchronic discourse; (3) the use of webpage design, and (4) new developments in intellectual property.
Colleen Brice and
Lisa Newman
The Case Against Grammar Correction in Practice: What Do Students Think? This paper presents a study that investigated ESL students’ reactions to feedback practices that excluded attention to error in an introductory university writing course. Based on questionnaire data, interviews with students, and analysis of student writing, the researcher discusses the effects of the feedback practices on students and their writing.
Yuh-Fang Chang EFL Teacher's Responses to L2 Writing The presenter begins by reviewing the research on faculty's responses to error in L2 writing. Following that will be a discussion of the research outcomes. Most research investigated ESL faculty's responses to L2 writing. This study is to examine the EFL teacher's reactions to the academic writing of NNS students.
Nobuko Chikamatsu The Effects of Computer Usage on L2 Japanese Writing Proficiency The present paper discusses the effects of computer usage on learner writing proficiency, focusing on Japanese E-mail correspondence. The results of student survey and writing tests (vocabulary and essay tests given in computer-writing and hand-writing settings) are discussed to investigate learners' attitudes and writing efficiency on computer usage.
Yeonsuk Cho and Fred Davidson The Use of Process-Oriented Assessment in Large-Scale ESL University Placement Testing The study examines the use of a process-oriented writing test in a large-scale time-constrained setting. Examinees' performance on the product-oriented vs. process-oriented tests will be compared for analysis. Questionnaires are given to students to examine the extent to which the process-oriented measure facilitates their writing process and its effect on their final writing product.
MaryAnn Crawford,
Leslie Grant, and
Shinji Okumura
Tutoring, Training, and Teaching: Writing Center as TESOL Practicum This presentation will bring together the Writing Center Director, a MA-TESOL faculty member, and a second-language graduate student to address: how writing center work can enhance TESOL programs, the importance of experiences in teaching writing in a TESOL curriculum, and the influence of the writing center work on one student's understandings of writing and teaching writing.
Avon Crismore Teaching EFL University Students to Read and Write Critically EFL (and ESL) students can learn to read and write texts critically by using certain strategies. The strategies include annotating, responding to texts in journals as they critique the content and the author’s writing/rhetorical strategies and document design. They personally write to authors about their critiques and suggestions.
Deborah Crusan Effective ESL Assessment Although assessment practices for ESL composition course placement centering on the direct/indirect dichotomy have been frequently debated, little quantitative evidence exists regarding this dichotomy. This presentation offers results clarifying the need for institutions to rethink assessment for placement measures used for ESL students since crucial judgments often seriously impact students’ lives.
Dana Ferris and
Barrie Roberts
Treatment of Written Error by ''Ear'' Learners: How Much is Enough? This paper reports on the ability of 100 immigrant ESL writers to edit their papers after receiving one of three different treatments: No feedback, feedback with errors marked and coded by type, and feedback with errors marked but not coded. The control group was unsuccessful at self-editing most errors, but there were no significant differences between the other two treatment groups.
Mayumi Fujioka Utilization and Non-Utilization of Peers in English Academic Writing by Japanese Students Focusing on Japanese graduate students at an American university, this study examined whether students asked peers to read drafts of their written assignments for disciplinary courses and, if so, what they learned from their peers. Longitudinal data included open-ended interviews, drafts and final submissions.
Gail Hapke "Trade E for J": Second-Language Writing Online Japanese participants in the educational forum Japanese-Online choose to teach and to learn in a manner that is quite different from the “rote memorization,” rule-intensive stereotype of Japanese language education. Rather they rely on developing both communal and personal relationships with native speakers of English through the use of second-language writing and, in turn, use those evolving relationships to help them develop their English language skills. In my presentation, I wish to demonstrate and analyze the broad range of self-chosen learning and teaching methods employed within this paradigm and to assess the potential implications for formal pedagogy through such written exchanges.
Anita Hernandez The Writing of First- and Second-Language Fifth-Grade Students: Teachers' Beliefs and Students' Proficiencies This presentation summarizes findings from a study, in which I describe and analyzed the writing proficiencies of first- and second-language students at a critical time--the end of elementary school. Examining writing along several dimensions provided a nuanced description of students' writing repertoires, especially those second-language writers considered weak.
Yi-ping Hsu Writing Chinese as a Second Language: Implications for Contrastive Rhetoric and Pedagogical Practice This study investigates how similar and dissimilar discourse patterns in English and Chinese affect American college students' Chinese writing, using data collected from Chinese language learners in a large U.S. university. The paper will present the characteristics of these students' Chinese as a foreign language writing (CFL writing), and then provide a comparison between this CFL writing and the existing research on Chinese students' ESL writing. The results are discussed in the context of their pedagogical implications with particular regard to curriculum design and teaching techniques.
Sunny Hyon and
Kellie Rayburn
Are They So Different?: Evaluating Intersections Between Native Speaker and ESL Basic Writers This paper compares native speaker and immigrant ESL students in university basic writing classes. Drawing on data from a multiple-section exit portfolio assessment, the presenters examine linguistic and rhetorical features of the two populations' portfolios, highlighting areas in which they share instructional needs.
Georgette Jabbour The Threshold in ESL Composition This paper argues for teaching ESL composition by patterns using corpus linguistics tools. There are two benefits in the use of this procedure. The first is that writing becomes faster since there will not be a need to recall the grammar rules and vocabulary items as two separate entities. The second is that with corpus linguistics a much larger number of patterns can be elicited, thus making the writing environment a much richer one. Some illustrative work will be presented.
Ulrike Jannausch A Case Study of Native Speakers of English Composing in German This study explores the writing processes of six college students, who produced think-aloud protocols while composing in German as a foreign language. Results showed that most participants engaged in very little global planning; that they used their L1 extensively to plan, generate ideas, and revise; and that grammar and vocabulary issues received more attention than content.
Wenjun Jin A Quantitative Study of Cohesion in Chinese Graduate Students' Writing: Variations Across Genres and Proficiency Levels This study presents quantitative analyses of the cohesion of the academic writing of Chinese ESL graduate students by applying Halliday and Hasan's (1976) model. The results of the analyses indicate that personal reference, temporal conjunctions and lexical repetition were strongly favored in all three genres and by both proficiency groups. However, the advanced group employed significantly more cohesive ties than did the intermediate group.
David Johnson Reconsidering the Unthinkable: Process Writing in the Foreign Language Classroom This presentation will present the results of a study focusing on the place of writing in a university foreign language program. Specifically, it will analyze three instructors’ (French, German, Spanish) use and implementation of process writing in their curriculum.
Shingjen Jyang Behaviors and Strategies of 4 Taiwanese Graduate Students in 2nd Language (English) Academic Writing A case study investigating writing behaviors and strategies of four Taiwanese graduate students' L2 English composing processes in an English-language academic community. The results suggest that personal, task, and strategy variables are all significant factors in successful L2 writing performance.
Robert Kantor TOEFL Online Essay Scoring on the Eve of the Asia Rollout (Poster) This session will describe the technology used to deliver TOEFL essays to online raters in scoring centers and via the Web, rater training and monitoring, and the challenges and successes of the past two years of online essay scoring and prospects for a 50% increase in volume in October 2000.
Andreas Karatsolis Narrative Strategies of Opening Paragraphs in Expository Writing This paper presents the results of a study aimed towards the understanding of the difficulties international students face in the adoption of a linear model of essay development, especially as this relates to opening paragraphs. It is shown that Asian students do not prefer the Western model, but also that all groups of participants indicate a preference for the narrative model, which is closer to commonly shared literacy practices.
Py Kollberg,
Eva Lindgren, and
Kirk Sullivan
Writing FL English at High School: A Comparison with L1 Swedish This paper longitudinally compares and contrasts the writing development and discourse structure in the L1 and the EFL of young writers. It focuses upon spelling, grammar and rhetorical problems and posits the degree to which the FL is the cause of writing problems over and above those which exist in the L1 context.
Barbara Kroll What ESL Students Want Teachers to Know Using survey data, this paper reports on how ESL students perceive their own needs in terms of what they would like their teachers to know and do. Teachers have a duty not merely to provide well-designed courses for their students, but they should also listen to how students view their own learning issues.
Michael Lessard-Clouston Technical Vocabulary Use in ESL/NES Disciplinary Writing Research reveals the importance of technical vocabulary in disciplinary writing. This paper investigates the quantitative and qualitative use of target vocabulary in the written exams and term papers of five ESL and seven NES students during their first term at a graduate school of theology in Canada.
Jiang Li The Mediation of Technology: A Comparative Study of Computer-Assisted ESL Writing Twenty-one ESL writers wrote two compositions—one on a computer and the other with pen and paper. It was found they paid more attention to higher-order thinking while evaluating their written texts, revised more at most levels, and achieved better quality in argumentation, linguistic accuracy, and linguistic appropriacy in the computer session.
Susanna Yee-Ling Lo Fostering Higher Order Competence in Second Language Academic Writing: Uniting Text, Cognition and Context This study used a modeling and evaluation approach through procedural facilitation (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987) of five thinking prompts (Cumming, 1995) in the form of one-to-one tutoring to assess whether significant differences appeared before and after the strategy training over five months in: (1) the qualities of content, discourse organization and language use in ESL engineering students' written texts; (2) the content and complexity of their thinking while composing; and (3) knowledge-transforming behaviors as they wrote in English.
Yi-Hsuan Gloria Lo and
Jan Buckwalter
Writing in Chinese and English:  Emergent Biliteracy Development This presentation discusses the interplay between the emerging nature of simultaneous English and Chinese writing development of a five-year-old Taiwanese boy prior to formal instruction. Conclusions and implications from analysis of six months of data from weekly writing samples, field notes, and interviews will be presented.
Jessie Moore An Inclusive Classroom: Making Cultural Studies Based Writing Classes Cross-Cultural Cultural studies in freshman English classes rarely means cross-cultural studies. By analyzing a recent introductory writing text with a cultural studies emphasis, the presenter will demonstrate a need for cross-cultural awareness in cultural studies classrooms that include international students. The presenter also will provide ideas for improving cross-cultural awareness.
Frank A. Morris Comparing L1 and L2 Writing Strategies of Advanced Non-Native Writers: A Case Study of 10 Advanced Writers of Spanish as a FL. The current study set out to assess and compare the L1 and L2 writing strategies of 10 advanced learners of Spanish who were native English speakers and who possessed excellent L1 writing expertise. It was concluded that learners' L1 writing strategies were successfully transferred to L2 writing.
Akemi Nagasaka Japanese Students' Reactions to and Perceptions of Feedback: Analyses of Journal Entries and Questionnaires This study examines 45 Japanese EFL college students' reactions to and perceptions of teacher, peer, and self-directed feedback. Analyses of both students' on-going reactions in journal entries and final perceptions in questionnaires present a comprehensive picture of how students experienced feedback and learned essay writing.
Melinda Reichelt Writing in a German Class The presenter describes an investigation of writing instruction in a fourth-semester college-level German course, describing the course context and writing assignments as well as the instructor's perspective on the purpose of writing within the overall course curriculum. The presenter raises questions about the purpose of writing in the FL classroom.
Laurel D. Reinking Effective Teaching of English for Specific Purposes Writing Teachers of English to speakers of other languages will learn strategies that use the rationales and values underlying the criteria of various professional writing communities in order to better help professional and student internationals to write more effectively in English for Specific Purposes.
Dudley W. Reynolds Discourse Dimensions in Middle-Grade L2 Writing This paper examines the discourse strategies employed by over 1000 middle-grade (5-8) Limited English Proficiency (LEP) and non-LEP students in essays written for large-scale assessment purposes. Discourse strategies are identified on the basis of a factor analysis of lexical and grammatical variables (following Biber 1988).
Miyuki Sasaki Toward an Empirical Model of EFL Students' Writing Processes This study investigated EFL learners' writing process using multiple data sources, including written texts and stimulated recall protocols. Three pairs of Japanese EFL writers (experts vs. novices, more vs. less efficient student writers, novices before and after a process-oriented instruction) were compared in terms of strategy use and writing styles.
Jean Marie Schultz Foreign Language Writing Component Assessment In order to determine which approaches to the teaching of writing in French at the intermediate college level contribute most effectively to the improvement of students’ composition skills, an extensive year-long assessment of the writing component was carried out via a detailed questionnaire. The data gleaned from the study should provide us a better understanding of foreign language writing skill development and what techniques prove most effective for improving composition skills.
David Schwarzer and
Mary Petron
Electronic Dialogue Journals in Second Language Development: A Case Study The purpose of this teacher/research project based on a second language methods class is to research the impact of electronic dialogue journal writing in second language acquisition. A case study based on four students' dialogue journal entries and their acquisition of English and Spanish as a second language was conducted.
Sima Sengupta Peer-Response Sessions Between Language and Content Experts This paper will examine the moves within the peer response meeting between two colleagues, one with expertise in language providing feedback to another with expertise in content. By looking at the moves in the recorded sessions we attempt to describe how peer response can be an instructional tool in many different contexts.
Victor Slepovitch Teaching ESL Academic and Business Writing in Belarus: Luxury or Necessity? Despite the growth of interest in English instruction in Belarus, and the demands for academic and business writing instruction among students, writing instruction is still considered as a “Cinderella” of the teaching process because of the lack of understanding and knowledge on the part of instructors. The presenter describes the designing of courses in academic and business writing in Belarus, and discusses the experience of teaching those courses.
Sufumi So Reading, Writing, and Thinking in Japanese Language Classrooms The present paper describes and presents pilot data on an innovative instructional approach intended to improve college-level Japanese-as-a-foreign-language learners' reading and writing skills in the target language. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data collected through classroom observations, interviews, questionnaires, and reading and writing assessments show promising results.
Judit Szerdahelyi Challenges To Teaching Writing Across Cultures: A Non-Native Teacher's Perspective This presentation examines the challenges that teachers and students have to face in a first-year composition course in which the teacher is a non-native speaker and the students are native speakers of English. It discusses the adjustments the educational situation requires at the intersection of language, knowledge, culture, and pedagogy.
Toshiyuki Takagaki Revision Process in L1 and L2 by Japanese Writers The major focus of this study is to investigate the revising process of Japanese writers learning EFL as well as the revising process of writers of Japanese as a first language. Three writers with different writing experiences participated in this study.
Barry Thatcher Validity in L2 Professional Writing Research This presentation focuses on validity in researching second language professional writing, arguing for a multidisciplinary approach. This approach needs the situated, rhetorical models of professional writing, yet it needs to draw on the strengths of the intercultural models such as those in intercultural communication, organizational behavior, and ESL to assess the cross-cultural variables. One major research instrument that involves all four perspectives is the contrastive rhetoric survey, which assesses preferences for discourse structures in a given rhetorical situation.
Thomas Upton A corpus analysis of EFL writers negotiating cross-cultural differences in politeness in writing letters of application This study examines politeness in letters of job application cross-culturally. The corpus originates from letters of application in a simulated business situation in which international and U.S. college students applied for positions abroad. A variety of linguistic realizations of politeness were included in the analysis.
Michael Vallance The International Writing Exchange: A Cybercomposition Experience (Poster) The International Writing Exchange provides an online platform for developing the writing skills of engineering students studying at Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore. Utilising a bulletin board, a chat application, and the IWE web site, students are able to post written submissions online for evaluation by fellow learners and instructors world-wide. This poster details the IWE course and outlines the experiences gained.
Stephanie Vandrick The Need for Teacher Narratives This paper argues for the usefulness of L2 writing instructors' publishing teacher stories. The presenter speculates on reasons for the scarcity of such personal narratives, and discusses the benefits and difficulties she encountered while writing and publishing a narrative relating her childhood experiences to her career teaching ESL and L2 writing.
Wei Zhu Academic Writing in Business: Required Tasks, Necessary Skills, and Available Instruction This presentation discusses a project examining several aspects of academic writing in business, including a) writing tasks required of students; b) skills necessary for successful task completion; and c) instruction provided on academic writing tasks. The presenter will report the findings and discuss their implications for L2 writing instruction.

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Journal of Second Language Writing
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