Nagoya Gakuin University
Symposium on Second Language Writing 2007 in Japan


As of September 3, 2007

Invited Colloquia

Corpus and Second Language Writing
Masumi Narita, Chair

The CECL Learner Corpus and Use of Prepositions by Japanese University Students
Tomoko Kaneko, Showa Women's University, Japan

Explanations of the CECL Learner Corpus, especially the ICLE and ICLE Japanese Sub-Corpus will be presented along with an example of an L2 writing study based on the Corpus. The recent study concerns the use of prepositions by Japanese university students in order to further understand the use of bound and free form prepositions in relation to their constructions and meanings. Suggestions on the English proficiency level and state of acquisition of the learners for the future direction in teaching English in Japan will be made.

A Bird's Eye View of Japanese EFL Learners' Lexico-grammatical Development through the Analysis of Large L2 Writing Corpora
Yukio Tono, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Japan

I will describe the interlanguage process of Japanese EFL learners by examining a corpus of students' writing. The unique feature of the JEFLL Corpus is its cross-sectional nature in data collection; sampling more than 10,000 subjects across six school years (junior high 1st year to senior high 3rd year). Whilst most existing learner corpora are sampled mainly from university students, the JEFLL Corpus shows the overall picture of development across the six years in school after English is introduced. My research group has been conducting a series of studies investigating various aspects of interlanguage using JEFLL. I will especially focus on the patterns of development in the following areas: word order; verb tense-aspect/agreement morphology; NP expansion; modals; and connectors. Based on these findings, I will discuss possible methodological and pedagogical implications, arguing that L2 writing data, when compiled as corpora, could serve as very useful language resources for SLA and ELT research.

Providing Just-in-Time Lexicosyntactic Resources for Second Language Writers
John Milton, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong

I will describe an ongoing research and development program that uses natural language processing and information retrieval techniques: to inform learners of English of common interlanguage errors; to provide learners guided access to the lexicosyntactic features of Standard English; to encourage the productive use of these features in the writing process; to help teachers provide effective feedback and guide their students in effectively using these resources as writing aids; to enable learners to harvest the web for lexis relevant to their needs and interests; and to help teachers monitor and guide their students' vocabulary acquisition. I will describe the incorporation of this program into an academic ESL curriculum, discuss its relative success, and suggest how we might address some of the pedagogical and technical issues that have prevented the adoption of data-driven techniques by language teachers and students.

Concurrent Presentations

These abstracts are organized in alphabetical order by title.

A Culturally Focused Writing Instruction Model for Papua New Guinea Upper-Secondary Schools

Rachel Aisoli-Orake, University of Newcastle

The teaching of writing skills in English to non-native speakers from diverse linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds is a challenge faced by teachers in upper-secondary schools in the South Pacific island country of Papua NewGuinea. This paper reports an investigation on the existing teaching strategies and proposes an effective model in its cultural context.

A Historical Perspective of Error Correction in Second Language Writing Instruction

Theresa Jiinling Tseng, Tunghai University

Error correction has been a controversial topic in writing instruction. Instead of joining the debate, I trace the origin and development of our current views of error correction in second language writing. The result of this investigation offers a historical perspective on the reasons why controversy over error correction continues.

A New Way of Practicing L2 Writing?: Taiwanese College Students' Views Concerning the Use of Weblog in a Writing and Reading Course

Kazuaki Nakazawa, Yuan Ze University

The present survey study will explore Taiwanese college students’ views toward using weblog as an intermediate Japanese writing and reading course assignment. Results including students’ attitudes toward writing on weblog, perceptions of improvement of their writing and reading skills, and enjoyment of reading comments from readers will be reported.

A Pilot Study on Writing Strategies Taken by Asian English Learners

Ji Shaobin, Wenzhou Vocational & Technical College

This paper focuses on the writing strategies taken by Asian students on the basis of writing strategy questionnaire set by b. Petric & B. Czarl. The author found the writing process has relationship with learners' educational background, learning environment and language acquired competency as a result of analysis by SPSS.

A Study on Word-Combinations in Chinese University Students' Writing

Yuanwen Lu, ShanghaiJiaotong University

This study examines nineteen patterns of word-combinations in the written English by PRC university students. Based on three corpora, the analysis reveals that Chinese university students' writing has its own characteristics in terms of the distinct use of some word-combinations. Issues of theoretical concern in this study are also discussed.

A Taiwanese Graduate Student's Academic Writing Conceptions and Processes in L1 Chinese and L2 English

Shingjen Jiang, Chungshan Medical University

Robert Glen, Chungshan Medical University

This case study investigates a Taiwanese graduate student's academic writing conceptions and processes in L1 Mandarin-Chinese and L2 English. Attitude and motivation towards and strategies and behaviors in the writing processes in the two languages are examined, in terms of individual cognitive and personality characteristics, social/cultural background, and language ability.

A Tentative Theory of Task Representation in L2 Writing

Mark Wolfersberger, Brigham Young University Hawaii

The writing process begins with the writer forming a mental representation of the task. And it continues with the writer revising and reshaping the representation throughout the entire writing process. This presentation offers a tentative theory of this process of task representation creation in an L2 academic writing setting.

A Text-Based Approach to ESL Writing: Exploring the Texture and Text Structure of the Narrative

Debbie Guan Eng HO, Universiti Brunei Darussalam

The paper looks at the text-based approach to teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) writing in the secondary school classroom. Focussing on language awareness Based on functional grammar and genre-based theory, it provides opportunities for students to explore the texture and text structure of the narrative text-type from a genre-based/functional grammar perspective.

A User Friendly Alternative to Concordancing Software for Classroom Use and Self-Study by EFL Graduate Students and Faculty

Adam Turner, Hanyang University

A user friendly alternative to concordancing software using Adobe Acrobat Reader advanced search functions on a corpus of PDF files is presented. Search techniques used in classroom and workshop settings for graduate students and faculty writing for publication in an EFL setting in Korea will be demonstrated.

Academic Writing Skills for Pacific Rim Students

Marcie Williams, Ohio State University

This presentation summarizes pertinent findings from two separate research areas, and discusses how they were incorporated into an academic writing course. Recommendations are given on how PacificRim instructors can better prepare their students for study in an American university. Handouts provided.

Acquisition of Noun Modification Patterns: A Corpus Analysis of L2 Student Essays

Sachie Karasawa, College of Southern Nevada

The present study compared noun modification patterns of intermediate and high score L2 English essays and found much more varied use of different types of modification patterns in the high score essays. This paper discusses the results as an indication of different stages of interlanguage development.

Active/Passive Voice in Writing: A Corpus Based Study

Akiko Ota, Portland State University

What are the differences between active and passive voices when both can express the same situation? This paper investigates the use of voices in academic prose using corpus linguistic data. Then, I would make suggestions how to incorporate grammar instruction into teaching writing academic prose.

Adjusting Writing Course Syllabi Through Student Self-Assessment

Russell P. Hubert, Kyoto Sangyo University

Byron O'Neill, Kyoto Notre Dame University

This presentation will first describe the results from a questionnaire designed to identify the previous writing experience of students in first-year writing courses at four Japanese universities. It will then demonstrate how this feedback was used to make changes to writing course syllabi while giving specialized support to individual students.

An Appropriate Methodology Towards the Development of Writing Skills and a Consistent Approach to Building Motivation and Courage to Write in Very Low Level L2 Language Learners

Zuzana Chvatikova, The Hong Kong Institute for Education

This paper provides an insight into a method that targets motivation and establishing routine in writing practice and development. It is also underlining the right of each learner to choose their own pace in their writing skills progress and gives solution on how to implement these aspects in teaching without having to alter the pace of the rest of the class.

An Early Start: Does It Make a Difference in EFL Writing?

Teresa Naves, University of Barcelona

This study examines the effects of onset age on general EFL proficiency, writing quality and four writing components (accuracy, fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity) and whether those areas develop in parallel. The results showed that late starters significantly outperformed the early starters although the areas do not develop in tandem.

An Innovative Writing Center Approach Helping Faculty and Graduate Students in Korea Write for International Publication

Adam Turner, Hanyang University

A model for an innovative writing center approach to help Korean faculty and graduate students write for international publication will be presented. A case will also be made that providing traditional writing classes may not be the most effective way for universities to help researchers in the sciences publish in English.

An Inquiry into Japanese Postgraduate Students' Argument Patterns in Writing

Maki Ojima, University of London

This paper reports on four Japanese MA students’ writing development through their experience of studying in the UK. The students’ use of argument analysed through Fisher’s (1988) model showed distinct characteristics, which could be associated with their prior experience of English writing, culture-specific thought patterns, and their access to interactive resources in the academic community.

An Investigation into the Preparation of Future Faculty for Publishing in International Journals: the Hong Kong Case

Becky Kwan, City University of Hong Kong

This paper presents a study that reviews the provision of training in research publication (TIRP) in the doctoral programs in Hong Kong. Findings drawn from document analysis and interviews suggest that while mentoring of publishing thesis work can be obtained from individual supervisors, systematic TIRP is in general lacking. Pedagogical and administrative implications will be drawn.

An Investigation of Rhetorical Moves in Research Article Conclusion Sections

Ho-ping Feng, National TaiwanNormal University

This paper compares the rhetorical moves in RA conclusions written by native-speaker researchers, Taiwanese scholars and graduate students in applied linguistics field. Thirty-six articles by these three groups are analyzed qualitatively for the moves using Swales and Feak’s (1994) scheme, and the strategies for development based on Swales and Feak (1994) and Dudley-Evans (1994).

Are They Reader-Responsible Writers or Writer-Responsible Writers?

Congjun Mu, Shanghai Institute of Technology

This study investigates audience awareness of three Chinese post-graduate students at an overseas university in English academic writing. The analysis of data collected from semi-structured interviews, post-writing discussions and their writings demonstrates that the students take their readers into consideration in the writing process. The implications have also been provided.

Authorial Voices in Journal Articles: A Contrastive Rhetoric Study

Sydney Gonzales-Villegas, De La Salle University-Manila

This study examines authorial voices in journal articles in education and applied linguisitcs drawn from different cultures. It explores the organizational moves, linguistic features, and the types of authorial voices that emerged from the text. Using Y. Kachru's (1999) Contrastive Rhetoric Hypothesis as a framework, findings showed similarities in the organizational moves and use of linguisitc signals to demonstrate ownership of the texts and interpersonal negotiations with the readers. More importantly, the journal articles revealed to adopt an authoritative type of voice in the presentation of their research findings.

Beliefs About Academic Writing: Where Do They All Come From?

Mariko Yoshida, University of Hawaii at Manoa

This is a retrospective longitudinal case study that spanned four years of English writing practices by a Japanese male who moved from Japan to Hawaii. I attempt to unpack how his beliefs about L2 writing had been sociopolitically constructed over time and space as he experienced various literacy practices.

Bridging the Gap of Research and Teaching: Focus on Writers

Angela Yi-ping Hsu, National Tsing Hua University

Instead of emphasizing students’ writing products, this study focuses on the writers themselves and their attitudes toward problem solving. By knowing the hows and whys of a student’s writing process, this study provides teachers with the knowledge and tools they need to work effectively with second language writers.

Case Report of a Japanese-English Translators' Workshop Using an ESP Approach

Masako Terui, Osaka University

Shoji Miyanaga, Osaka University

Atsuko Misaki, Simul Academy Osaka

Junko Nishino, TempleUniversity Japan

Judy Noguchi, Mukogawa Women’s University

We introduce a translators’ workshop aimed at improving the quality of translation from Japanese to English by nonnative English speakers. Linguistic analysis tools used within an ESP framework for identifying fields, genres and move steps of both source and target texts were found to be effective.

Choice of Linking Adverbials in Academic Writing: A Corpus Based Analysis

Akiko Ota, Portland State University

In ESL Writing textbooks, connecting ideas are taught with the introduction of linking adverbials such as moreover, in addition to, further more, and however. Yet, the subtle differences of such linking adverbial choices and uses are not often included in writing textbooks or classes. This paper investigates the differences of choices and use of linking adverbials between American and non English writers.

Collaborative Writing Assessment: Teacher and Student Self-Assessment

Mari Tanaka, Nagoya University of Foreign Studies

Advanced Japanese learners at a Japanese university and a teacher separately assessed the students’ essays. Students commented on and reported their degree of agreement with the teacher. Non-Chinese students responded to this system differently from Chinese students. This system was found to be potentially beneficial for both students and teachers.

Composition Tasks in College Entrance Examination in China

Xu Yong, ShanghaiInternational Studies University

Yao Xiaomeng, Tongji University

In China, college entrance examination is the only screening test. Many provinces design different examination papers, so the construct and equivalence of the composition tasks are crucial. This proposal studies the composition tasks of 15 test papers in 2006 in terms of topic, prompt, context, genre and rhetorical structure, and finds both success and problems.

Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) in Interactive Writing Community (IWC): Using a Bulletin Board System (BBS) to Provide an International Audience to Enhance Communicative Competence in English

Kunitaro Mizuno, Keio University, Shonan Fujisawa Campus

Based on the conceptual framework of CSCL, IWC project has been implemented since 1998 at Keio University. It is argued that in the educational environment designed by IT, the following three elements of interaction in learning are facilitated: interaction with the world, interaction with others, and interaction with oneself.

Consequential Error Correction Using Manageable Writing Samples

Norman Evans, Brigham Young University

Correcting second language students' writing errors is a practice of considerable controversy. Despite this fact, students expect and deserve prompt, constructive feedback. This paper presents research findings on an error correction strategy that uses paragraph-length writing samples and increases student involvement in the error correction process.

Constructing Conceptualizations of English Academic Writing at an Asian University

Michael P. Geary, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology

The presentation draws upon in-depth research into the question of how English Academic Writing (EAW) is conceptualized at a Department of Applied English in a Taiwanese university. Interviews with administrators, teachers, and students show conceptualizations of EAW socially constructed in an EFL context to be particularly fragile and lack consistency.

Contrastive Rhetoric in Action: Helping Chinese Students Write English

Chingting Chen, National Dong Hwa Unversity

Previous research has claimed that Chinese ESL/EFL students would improve their English writing if they are taught to become aware of the influence of Chinese rhetoric on their English compositions. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the proposed teaching method by collecting data from Chinese EFL students in Taiwan.

Creating an EFL Writing Center Community in Asia: A Case Study

Yunhee Whang, Seoul National University

This study reports our efforts to close the gap between students' initial expectations and our center’s intended understanding of the EFL writing center’s role. Furthermore, other issues that we encountered in creating an English writing center in Korea and how they were addressed will also be discussed.

Cross-Paragraph Theme-Supporting Cohesion in Japanese and American Editorials

David Dycus, Aichi Shukutoku University

This paper present results of a study of cross-paragraph theme-supporting cohesion in12 newspaper editorials from three major Japanese and American newspapers, analyzed following Ricento's (1986) analysis of Japanese and American editorializing texts. Results indicate similarities between the original and translated Japanese editorials and the American ones regarding such cohesion.

Cultural Awareness Raising in the EFL Writing Classroom

Kai-lin Wu, Tunghai University

This paper describes awareness-raising activities in an EFL writing class and examines their effects on students’ English expository writing. It concludes that the awareness of rhetorical differences in L1 and L2 writing has positive effects on students’ English expository writing and that most students held positive attitudes toward these activities.

Developing L2 (English) Writing Rubrics for Classroom Use at Universities in Japan

Michiko Masaki, Osaka International University

Kayoko Kinshi, University of Hyogo

Yukiko Kuru, Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University

This presentation is a report on the rubrics for L2 (English) writing assessment that we are developing for classroom use at universities in Japan. The report discusses the process of developing them, their usefulness and effectiveness at the moment, and the problems and difficulties that we faced during their development.

Development of an Analytic Rating Scale for Writing Performance Assessments in Korean as a Second Language for Academic Purposes

Eun-Ha Lee, Ewha Woman's University

The present study described the overall process of developing an analytic rating scale for writing performance assessments in Korean as a second language (KSL) for academic purposes, and investigated the evidence of (1) the theory-based validity, (2) the content validity, and (3) the scoring reliability of the rating scale.

Developmental Features in the Writings of Chinese English Majors

Xiaoling Ji, Shanghai Normal University

The study aims at providing an objective picture of the writing proficiency of Chinese learners of English from a developmental perspective. 100 subjects from four institutions are chosen, whose compositions in 2003 Test for English Majors Band 4 and 2005 Test for English Majors Band 8 are coded for linguistic features like fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical complexity, formality, and accuracy and also rated holistically. The results are compared to show whether English majors do write better essays in their senior years than in their sophomore years.

Effects of Computer Usage on Second Language Composition

Matthew Apple, Doshisha University

Peter Neff, Doshisha University

Although computers are increasingly being utilized in English composition courses in Japan, many teachers and students still rely on handwritten output. Our study examined the differences between Japanese learners' compositions performed in both handwritten and computer-assisted modes. This presentation examines qualitative and quantitative contrasts in the resulting written output.

EFL Student Reactions to Two Peer Review Processes

Peter Neff, Doshisha University

Although the use of peer review in L2 writing courses is becoming increasingly common, is it better to use written or oral methods with EFL learners? This presentation will cover results from a study in which both types of peer review were engaged in by Japanese university students.

Employing an Online Concordancer for Learning English Adverbial Connectors

Masumi Narita, TokyoInternational University

Masatoshi Sugiura, Nagoya University

This study describes our newly developed corpus and online concordancer for learning English adverbial connectors in the writing classroom. Our trial use of this corpus-based tool in a semester-long EFL writing course suggests the potential of the tool to help in learning effective use of adverbial connectors as a cohesive device.

ESL Users and Future Literate Designs: Methodological Complexities

Jay Jordan, University of Utah

This presentation surveys literature in "mainstream" and ESL composition/applied linguistics that addresses ESL users’ complex negotiations with class assignments, cultural stereotyping, and “World Englishes.” I focus particularly on the diverse methodological approaches represented in the literature, and I propose a renewed focus on Grounded Theory as an approach well suited to the often-understudied complexities of emerging English uses.

ESP Writing to Consolidate Understanding of the Content Subject

Kiyomi Okamoto, Kansai University

In order to successfully translate, you need to have a thorough understanding of the content. In a pilot project in teaching ESP for the students in computer engineering at a university in Japan, the weekly assignment of translating what had been learned in Japanese into English was given and it contributed the understanding of the content subject.

Expanding Genre Rrepertoires: L2 Graduates and Undergraduates Negotiating New Genre Networks

Ilona Leki, University of Tennessee

This presentation reports on an empirical study of the personal genre repertoires of a group of undergraduate and graduate international students, that is, the genre knowledge and assumptions they bring to the new sets of writing requirements they encounter at a U.S. university.

Expatriate Students' L2 Writing Retention Back in the L1 Environment

Hideyuki Taura, Osaka Prefecture University

Amanda Taura, Setsunan University

This study examines how L2 writing skills are retained in Japanese returnee students who have moved back to Japan from English speaking countries. TOWL-3 was longitudinally administered to 16 participants. The results are discussed in terms of how literacy education in L2 affects writing skill retention.

"Experiments" in Alternative Writing Styles in Dissertation Work at a U.S. University in Japan

Christine Pearson Casanave, Temple University , Japan

In this presentation, I discuss the qualitative dissertation writing activities of three Japanese women and their attempts to shift their writing styles to one that was more personal and literary than is typical of their U.S. university program in Japan. I focus on the risks and rewards of their decisions.

Exploring the Differential Roles of Models and Reformulations as Feedback Tools

Osamu Hanaoka, Tokyo International University

The presentation will address potentially unique roles of native-speaker models in a noticing task in EFL writing. Specifically, the presenter proposes that native-speaker models written independently of learner output may play different roles from reformulations prepared for individual learners. Data was collected to examine the validity of this claim.

Exploring the Potential of Multi-Modal Inquiry: A Teacher‘s Story

Catherine Matsuo, Fukuoka University

The presenter will demonstrate her experience of conducting multi-modal research and use the findings both to assess this research method and to discuss the present L2 writing situation in Japanese universities. She will reanalyze two experimental mixed-method studies into L2 writer development and curriculum development using narrative and historical designs.

Exploring the Role of Information Structuring Patterns Used by Advanced L2 and NS Writers for Generating Coherent and Cohesive Texts

Marianna Ryshina-Pankova, George Mason University

Adopting a systemic functional theory (Halliday 2004, Martin 1985, 1995, 1997) and its interpretation of coherence and cohesion, the study explores global and local information structuring patterns in book reviews that advanced L2 and NS students use to recreate reality textually. The analysis focuses on textual stages and theme selection within them.

Expressing Causality: A Corpus Study

Michael Barlow, Auckland University

Alison McRae, Auckland University

Causality is a very complex conceptual domain and preferred ways of expressing causal relations vary cross-linguistically. In this paper we survey the range of expressions of causality in corpora such as the British National Corpus and compare those findings with L2 usage in learner corpora such as JP-ICLE.

Feedback in Hong Kong Secondary Writing Classrooms: Ideal Versus Reality

Icy Lee, Chinese University of Hong Kong

This paper examines the feedback advice provided in the Hong Kong education ministry’s official document for secondary English teachers and compares the ideal with the reality of teacher feedback based on analysis of feedback provided to 174 student texts collected from 26 teachers and follow-up interviews with 6 of them.

Foreign-Language Writing in a Liberal-Arts University Curriculum

Tom Gally, The University of Tokyo

Recent models for ESL writing pedagogy are only partially applicable to English-language academic writing programs at universities where the primary language of instruction is not English. This presentation will consider whether a liberal-arts model for foreign-language writing would offer a viable conceptual basis for such programs.

Frequency of English-Grammar Errors in Writings by Native MandarinChinese-Speaking University Coeds: Rankings and Comparison to Their English-Speaking Proficiency

Stuart J. Birkby, The Ohio State University

The presenter evaluated and ranked the E-mail-based writings in English of native Mandarin Chinese-speaking coeds. He then compared these rankings to additional rankings based on their spoken English proficiency. Correlated results imply that highly proficient lexical retrieval for speaking contributes to improved writing skills.

Generation 1.5 Students and Cultural Literacy in First-Year Composition Assessment

John Gravener, De Anza College

This presentation explores the intersection of Generation 1.5, First-Year Composition, and the unintended presence of cultural bias in standardized final exams at a San Francisco Bay Area college. Raising awareness about test design, this presentation also asks if we are assessing our students' writing abilities or their level of cultural literacy.

Grammar Logs: Improve Grammaticality Through Writing

Rob Hirschel, Monterey Institute of International Studies/Kanda Gaigo Daigaku

Teaching students of varied written proficiency level? Struggling to address the different grammatical concerns of different students? Want to approach grammar study implicitly rather than explicitly? Consider grammar logs. In this presentation, we will discuss grammar logs as an authentic tool for awareness-raising, individualized instruction, and student autonomy in learning.

Graphical Anchoring of Second Language Writing Task

Lawrie Hunter, Kochi University of Technology

This paper describes and demonstrates several load-reducing graphical representations currently in use in the author's curriculum and materials; these provide writing task 'anchors' for (a) information structures, cf. Mohan's (1986) knowledge structures; (b) prescribed sentence patterns; (c) rhetorical structures as seen in Mann's rhetorical structure theory; and (d) cohesion devices.

Group Writing: An Ethnographic Study on ESL Students in a Commerce Course

Luxin Yang, Beijing Foreign Studies University

This study investigated how five ESL students completed their writing of two group assignments for a commerce course at a Canadian university over a semester. Data analyses showed the dynamic interactions between the students over the semester and reveal variations in effort engagement and learning outcomes between the group members.

How Children Perceive Competing Writing Language Systems: A Case Study in Cantonese, French and English

Diana Masny, University of Ottawa

A multiple literacies perspective and a theory of learning form the basis of this longitudinal case study of a child age seven acquiring competing writing systems in Cantonese, French and English. Observations, interviews and writing products from the home and school constitute the data.

How to Find Strong Reasons for English Argumentative Writing

Fei-Wen Cheng, National Chiayi University

Due to different cultural traditions, Chinese-speaking EFL students are found to be less capable of generating strong reasons in support of their thesis. The present study intends to explore the effect of an instructional approach based upon Stasis Theory to scaffold this aspect of argumentative skills.

Implementation of School-Based Assessment: Impact of Writing Portfolio on Students' Perceptions

Ricky Lam, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

The study sets out to investigate how intermediate L2 writers respond to two writing portfolio models namely Integrative Showcase Portfolio Model and Complimentary Working Portfolio Model in a sub-degree program in Hong Kong. A four-week pilot study was conducted in which Integrative Showcase Portfolio Model was adopted. The preliminary findings indicated that students regarded praise as the worst kind of feedback since they do not know how to improve their writing. What they preferred is more diagnostic comments that help develop their writing constructively.

Improving While No-One's Looking: Student Progress Through Uncorrected Writing and Extensive Reading

Joseph Tomei, Kumamoto Gakuen University

Richard S. Lavin, Prefectural University of Kumamoto

Paul A. Beaufait, Prefectural University of Kumamoto

Japanese university students wrote regular book reviews on their weblogs, receiving no direct correction, in a one-semester EFL writing course. We discuss changes observed in the corpus of student writing, including an increase in readability, and discuss whether unattended writing is an appropriate tool in Japanese tertiary contexts.

Information Organization and Coherent Writing: Thematic Analysis of EFL Essays

Yu-shan Grace Fan, National Tsing Hua University

Angela Yi-ping Hsu, National Tsing Hua University

This study investigated thematic organization by EFL doctoral students. Forty argumentative essays were examined using thematic analysis to assess coherence in terms of information organization. Moreover, questionnaire and survey on composing process and difficulty were included to display participants' writing behavior. Pedagogical implication for writing will also be addressed.

Integrating Grammar Instruction into Teacher Education

Aija Saario Pocock, Indiana University-Purdue University Columbus

Colleen Ijuin, Georgia Perimeter College

This paper explores the need for grammar instruction in a K-6 teacher education program. The presenter will discuss practical strategies and specific examples of assignments for increasing grammar awareness in pre-service teachers who may or may not be native speakers of English.

Interactivity of Second Language Writing: Focus on Imitation

Takehiro Sato, Nagoya University

Interactivity of second language writing: Focus on imitation This study is an attempt to investigate the characteristics of interactive writing. I select dialogue journal writing exchanges as interactive writing activities from the perspective of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory. This study adopts a retrospective protocol method, and detailed analysis of the protocols reveals the complex characteristics of interactive writing.

Internet Collaboration Between a Japanese EFL and an American ESL Writing Classroom

Akiko Okamura, Takasaki City University of Economics

Elizabeth Axelson, University of Michigan

In this paper, we show how “near-peer” internet collaboration benefited Japanese undergraduates studying writing in an EFL classroom in Japan and international graduate students in an ESL writing class in the US. Both groups were motivated by the collaboration and gained greater sensitivity to each other as potential readers.

Introducing Essay Writing to Japanese University Students

Byron O'Neill, Kyoto Notre Dame University

This presentation will discuss an open source writing guide specifically developed to introduce essay writing skills to Japanese students at three universities. The presenter will briefly go over the parts of the guide before showing how it can be adapted to various teaching approaches.

It's Too Local to Be Interesting: Learning to Be More Daring to Write From Peripheries

Yi-Hsuan Gloria Lo, National Penghu University

Chin-Chi Chao, National ChengChi University

Hui-Chin Yeh, National YunLin University of Science and Technology

This in-depth case study documented the processes and tensions experienced by three women scholars during their years of individual engagement in publication in a doctoral language education program in the United States, and in their subsequent publishing practices upon returning to be young professionals in language education departments in Taiwan.

Japanese University Students’ Transition From High School English to EAP

Setsuko Oda, International Christian University

Yukako Yamamoto, International Christian University

This paper explains that building human relationships can play a significant role as Japanese university entrants overcome anxiety which they feel in making transitions from high school English pedagogy to the intensive freshman English program at a Japanese university specifically designed to teach basic EAP to students of all disciplines.

Journalistic Feature Writing: A Bridge From a 3-Paragraph Essay to a Graduation Thesis

Robin Antepara, Tsuda College

Tim Knight, Shirayuri College

Writing a graduation thesis is a particular challenge for Japanese students due to differences between Eastern and Western rhetoric. The presenters will show how interview-based journalistic style feature writing can lead students from basic writing to more complex academic forms.

L1 Literacy Effects on L2 Writing Quality of Tertiary Chinese EFL Learners

Wang Lifei, University of International Business and Economics

This paper studies the effects of L1 writing ability on L2 writing of the Chinese EFL learners. It tries to focus on the positive influences of Chinese literacy on English writing quality by looking at the following three aspects: L1 writing influence, L1 lexical influence and L1 discourse influence. The corpus-based analysis yields four important findings. First, L1 and L2 writing are significantly correlated in length and readability for the whole group. Second, there is a consistency in lexical diversity between high- and low-quality L1 and L2 essays. Third, there is a significant difference in the L2 lexical diversity and density between the L1 HA and L1 LA groups. Fourth, there is a significant difference in the frequency of cohesive markers in L2 writing between the two groups. The L1 HA group contained a bigger variety and quantity of cohesive markers than the L1 LA group. The results have great implications to China's ongoing ELT reform.

L2 Proficiency and the Transfer of Written Discourse Structures Between Languages

Robert Berman , Iceland University of Education

Three Icelandic secondary schools took part in this study, which examines whether students learn to employ argumentative essay writing skills more effectively in their first language than in English; to what extent they transfer writing skills between languages; and to what extent their language proficiency affects such transfer.

Learner Use of Electronic Dictionaries on Writing Tasks

Jack Bower, Kanda University of International Studies

The findings of a study examining how EFL students utilize their electronic dictionaries (EDs) on a writing task will be presented. Data reveals that students are unaware of some available functions of their EDs, and of how to best use other functions. Suggestions are made for learner training in ED usage.

Learning to Think and Write Qualitatively Under the Positivist Culture of Research: Experience of a Teacher Study Group in Taiwan

Chin-chi Chao, National Chengchi University

This study focuses on the culture of learning that a teacher's learning community situated in and the participants' strategic orientation toward academic writing. The finding focuses on how individuals negotiate their learning under the declared or undeclared rules and division of labor within a community. Pedagogical implications will be discussed.

Learning to Write Argumentation in English: Identity, Agency and Learning Opportunities

Ming-i Lydia Tseng, Chung Yuan ChristianUniversity

This paper aims to explore a group of EFL university students'learning of written argumentation in English, focusing on the issues of identity, agency, learning opportunities. The analysis shows that learning to write argumentation is socio-culturally constructed. Relevant pedagogical implications, particularly the (re)contextualization of resources and learning opportunities, are discussed.

Lexical Cohesive Devices in Arab Students' Academic Writing: Implications for Teaching Vocabulary

Nevine Kamal, Univeristy of Sharjah

This study addresses the problem related to the performance of students in the writing courses at the American University of Sharjah. The purpose of the study is to understand some key issues to EFL writing so as to suggest remedial procedures that may help to develop effeiceint ESL writers.

Mediated Cognition in Writing Activities: A Case Study of Writing Strategies of Chinese English Majors With Differing Writing Ability

LEI Xiao, University of Hong Kong

Based on distribution of cognition and activity theory, writing strategies are classified in six fundamental categories. Qualitative analyses show that significant differences exist within each category as well as in the combination of categories between two higher-ability writers and two lower-ability writers. The study argues for a sociocultural approach to writing strategy research.

Miscommunication in Tutoring Sessions in a Writing Center in Japan

Scott Johnston, Osaka Jogakuin College

Hiroko Yoshida, Osaka University of Economics

Steve Cornwell, Osaka Jogakuin College

Azusa Hirasaki, Osaka Jogakuin College

Miscommunication in tutoring sessions at Osaka Jogakuin College's Writing Center is examined. Since this is an EFL context, there were differences in miscommunication when compared to U.S. writing centers. This presentation analyzes why some misunderstandings between students and tutors escape detection and suggests ways to raise tutors' awareness of miscommunication.

Motivating Future Scientists to Write Research Papers: A Case Study

Tom Gally, The University of Tokyo

Research papers in the natural sciences are usually too specialized for use in undergraduate ESL writing classes. This presentation will show that "Brief Communications" from the journal "Nature" are accessible models of scientific writing and can be used to motivate students to write papers on original research projects.

Narrative Heuristics for Generation Y

Mary Brooks, Eastern Washington University

Technology has changed everything about the way students write. With cell phones, blog sites, instant messaging, DVDs downloaded onto iPods all competing for attention with academic studies, university, intermediate ESL students can be a challenge to motivate. If writing can be seen as an interactive and integral part of conversation, and as a dynamic use of these technologies, writers can apply their technical know-how to meeting classroom expectations.

Negotiating Identity and Participation in TESOL Discourse Communities: American and International Students Finding Voice

Julie Kerekes, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Jesse Black-Allen, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

The academic writing of MA TESOL students, including international students from pacific rim countries, is analyzed for stance and engagement (Hyland, 2005), and self-projection (Ivanic, 1998). Findings indicate that international student participants project their identities, experiences, and feelings into their writing less than their American counterparts. Implications for TESOL are discussed.

Negotiating What Counts as English Language Teaching: Official Curriculum and its Enactment in Singaporean Secondary Classrooms

Anneliese Kramer-Dahl, National Institute of Education, Singapore

This paper examines the tensions between an English Language curriculum as designed and its enactment in classrooms. It draws from a larger study that sought to describe how the 2001 English Language Syllabus in Singapore schools, though with its foregrounding of students’ ability to negotiate language in a wide array of contexts an enlightened response to general calls to teach lierate citizens in 'new times', has run the danger of being undermined in favour of a back-to-basics agenda. Looking at classroom observation and interview data from Secondary 2 teachers, the study provided an account of how they assemble and negotiate the objectives of the official curriculum of the syllabus as they understand them. This paper focuses on one major factor that contributed to the lack of congruence between official and enacted curriculum, namely a highly reductive, formulaic way of theorizing the notion of text and text-type or genre.

Non-Native English Writers' Voice in Intercultural and Political Weblog Discussions

Kyoko Baba, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Yasuhiro Imai, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Examining weblog discussions about Asian political/intercultural issues, this study describes how non-native English writers develop their voice in response to how it is perceived by other discussants. By using Membership Categorization Analysis, we describe ways in which NNE writers effectively negotiate their voice in the cybernetic discourse community.

Opening the Voice & Abandoning Plagiarism: A Classroom Study in EFL Academic Writing

Morgan Lake, Prince of Songkla University-Phuket

The habit of plagiarism among university learners in Thailand has been fossilized onto a ubiquitous petrified forest. In addition, tertiary Thai learners know many rules of grammar, but are unable to apply them. Sound familiar? This presentation reveals a learner centered learning methodology that has proven to eliminate plagiarism and dramatically improve sentence and essay writing accuracy among Thai freshmen studying English for Academic Purposes.

Peer Revision Via Blended Communication Modes in Taiwanese College Students' English Writing

Chang, Ching-Fen, National Chiao Tung University

The case study aims to closely examine what areas, types, and nature of peer revision are generated via blended communication modes (face-to-face, synchronous, and asynchronous CMC) and how students perceive peer revision by playing different roles in their writing process through blended modes in an EFL English college writing course.

Peer to Peer Writing Fluency Journals

Tracy Cramer, Kansai Gaidai University

How can peer to peer dialog journals be used to promote writing fluency and critical thinking skills with minimal teacher involvement? The presenter will provide a rationale for the use of peer journals in the university writing classroom, and then outline the procedures to meet the objectives of this activity.

Phrasal Verbs in Foreign Language Acquisition

Farida Abderrahim, University of Constantine, Algeria

Advanced learners of English misuse phrasal verbs. What method helps develop the acquisition of this area of grammar? This paper highlights the concepts basic to foreign language acquisition, the place of grammar in the language approaches and suggests activities which enhance the understanding and the use of phrasal verbs.

Placement Options for ESL Students in Freshman Composition: Segregation or Integration

Sachiko Yasuda, University of Hawaii at Manoa

As the influx of international students to American colleges and universities is growing, the presence of ESL students in freshman composition courses has become a significant consideration for writing instructors and writing program administrators. One central debate surrounding this issue concerns placement options of ESL students, namely, which option would be more beneficial to ESL students, mainstreaming them into, or separating them from, the regular composition courses. In this presentation, I will discuss possible ways to move beyond the mainstream/segregation binary, and demonstrate a possibility for interdisciplinary collaboration between L1 composition studies and L2 writing.

Politeness in L2 Writing Conferencing With Elderly Learners

Kaoru Mita, Jissen Women's Junior College

A case study of conferencing between Canadian NSs instructors and a Japanese learner of English in her 70’s is presented. The comments which were not perceived as face-threatening are analyzed through Discourse Analysis of conferencing, which is triangulated by interviews with NS instructors, and the learner’s diary entries.

Processing Loads and Fluency in Writing: Comparison of the Production Fluency Between Native Speakers and Non-Native Speakers in Terms of the "Cost Criteria"

Kazuko Matsuno, Nagoya University

Tatsuya Sakaue, Nagoya University

Mitsuhiro Morita, Yamagata University

Remi Murao, Waseda University

Masatoshi Sugiura, Nagoya University

The purpose of the study is to propose a new index of measuring fluency in writing namely the reduction value of processing loads. To show the effectiveness of the index, this study compares the processing loads of English native speakers with those of Japanese learners of English in terms of the Cost Criteria.

Promoting Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) in Hong Kong

George Braine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

This presentation describes the challenges faced in implementing a writing across the curriculum (WAC) program at a Hong Kong university, and how the challenges were overcome with adaptations to the needs of Cantonese-speaker professors and their students. The nature of L2 writing instruction will provide a backdrop to the presentation.

Putting Punctuation in Its Place in English Writing

Brian G. Rubrecht, Sophia University

Due to their pre-tertiary English language learning experiences, Japanese university students often do not evince an understanding of English punctuation use in their English writing. In order to stem erroneous English punctuation usage that arises largely from language transfer from Japanese, a four-step solution for university writing instructors will be presented.

Representations of Global Communication in US and International Professional Writing Classrooms

Christine Tardy; DePaul University

This paper shares an analysis of popular professional writing textbooks used in US university classrooms and in international ESP training courses. The textbooks are examined in terms of the genres that they prioritize for teaching, the characteristics of those genres, and considerations of audience and context.

Researching and Practicing: Constructing a Model of Academic Writing Courses for Taiwanese Students

Yuching Jill Yang, National Tsing Hua University

Chiayu Joy Lin, National Tsing Hua University

Angela Yi-ping Hsu, National Tsing Hua University

To establish a practical model for EAP writing course, the present project aimed to evaluate students’ preferences for writing materials by surveying 90 Taiwanese graduate students who received a variety of strategies in one-semester-long research writing courses. Questionnaires were designed to investigate learners’ motivations, attitudes and needs toward the topics.

Responding to Homework Assignments: Unskilled EFL Students' Perceptions of Teacher Comments and Attitudes Toward Revision

Sonoko Tsuchiya, Tokyo Keizai University

This paper examines how unskilled university EFL students in four-skill courses perceive teacher comments on homework assignments and revise their writing in response to them. The result of this study suggests that teachers should take their immediate needs and individual character into account to help them develop as writers.

Scaffolding Critical Thinking: Skills Development in a Japanese EAP Programme

Kris Bayne, Seisen Women's University

Frederick Fearn, Soka University

A major focus for many EAP programmes is the co-development of academic writing and critical thinking (CT) skills. Recognising the complexities this involves, reading-reaction journals and formalized reaction-papers are described as practical aids in the concurrent development of these two sets of skills.

Self-Efficacy and Academic Writing Strategies: A Case Study of Taiwanese Graduate Students

Pei-Chuan Cheng , Indiana University-Bloomington

Gen-Hua Chi , Indiana University-Bloomington

The purpose of this study is to investigate what kinds of learning strategies high efficacious learners use in academic writing. The participants in this study were two Taiwanese graduate students at a U.S. University. The data was analyzed based on Oxford 's six learning strategy groups. Some pedagogical implications for academic writing are provided.

Sequence of Vocabulary Production in the Non-Automatic Process of EFL Writing: A Case Study of Six Chinese EFL Writers

XU Fang, Soochow University

Based on protocol analysis of six Chinese EFL writers, the present study attempts to explore and hypothesize a general sequence of producing vocabulary units in the non-automatic process of EFL writing, by which the writers appear to experience and solve problems in vocabulary production.

Should Research Paper Writing Be Taught at Japanese Universities? YES!

David Kluge, Kinjo Gakuin University

Matthew Taylor, Kinjo Gakuin University

This presentation describes the current situation of EFL composition in Japanese universities related to research paper writing, especially looking at 1) present Japanese EFL writing curricula, 2) current research paper requirements in Japanese university seminars, and 3) current Japanese students' writing level and the problems they encounter using sample papers.

Social-Cultural Dimensions of on-Line Interaction in an EFL Writing Course

Chang, Ching-Fen, National Chiao TungUniversity

Wang, Hsin-Yun, National Chiao TungUniversity

The study aims to closely examine the types of social interaction (peers to peers and students to tutors) and kinds of social relationship (symmetrical vs. asymmetrical) via a synchronous CMC tool in an EFL college writing course to understand influence of different social interaction on the development of students's regulation.

Sociocognitive Approaches to L2 Writing

Kent Hill, Seigakuin University

This presentation introduces a sociocognitive approach to L2 writing. It first links different kinds of process writing to cognitive domains. Discourse markers are then reevaluated in terms of their ability to create intersubjectivity. It concludes with a look at how a sociocognitive perspective can enhance the benefits of peer editing.

Strategic Use of Teacher Feedback by University Students in Hong Kong

Nga Kwan (Emily) Lui, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

This paper describes the strategies used by Hong Kong university students when responding to teacher feedback in writing classes. The study was triangulated by using questionnaires, interviews with instructors and students, and analysis of students' papers. The study revealed that students used multiple strategies and the reasons for their use.

Student Feedback to Improve a University Writing Class

Paul Tanner, Nagoya City University

This presentation will examine how student responses to surveys have helped to improve the format of a university essay writing class. Comments from students have led to changes in writing journal formats, teacher comments on homework, error correction, rewrites, and opportunities for students to read others' writing.

Student Researchers' Citation Behavior

Chun-Chun Yeh, National Chung Cheng University

This study investigates first-year graduate students' citation behavior. Eighteen student papers were analyzed. Aspects examined include number of citations, surface forms of citations, presentation of cited work, and citations in rhetorical sections. The analysis shows that graduate students' citation practices diverged from those of expert researchers in several important ways.

Systematic Use of Outlining in Academic Writing Instruction for Japanese EFL Students: From Passive Knowledge to Active Production

Sumie Nishikawa, Nippon Medical School

In view of the need for an effective pedagogical model for academic writing instruction for Japanese EFL learners at the tertiary level, this presentation examines whether the systematic use of outlining influences the formation of the hierarchical structure in a paragraph.

Taiwanese Graduate Students' Attitudes Towards English Academic Composition Peer Editing in America

Robert Glen, Chungshan Medical University

Shingjen Jiang, Chungshan Medical University

This study surveys 30 Taiwanese graduate-students at an American university's attitudes towards peer editing in their English academic composition. The total-mean-score result (confidence level 99%) indicates an overall mildly positive attitude, with individual results ranging from slightly above 3 to slightly below 4 on a negative-to-positive 5-point Likert scale.

Taiwanese Graduate Students' Attitudes Towards English Academic Composition Peer Editing in Taiwan

Robert Glen, Chungshan Medical University

Shingjen Jiang, Chungshan Medical University

This study investigates the attitudes of 30 Taiwanese graduate-students at a Taiwanese university towards peer editing in their English academic composition. The expected results of the Likert-scale survey are that their attitudes will be less positive about peer editing in their native country than in America.

Taiwanese University Students' Conceptions and Strategies in L2 English Academic Writing

Shingjen Jiang, Chungshan Medical University

Robert Glen, Chungshan Medical University

The purpose of the study is to investigate and gain better understanding of the conceptional and strategical knowledge and behaviors used and involved in the processes of academic writing in L2 English by about 200 Taiwanese university students across different disciplines in Taiwan. The data source is elicited from a questionnaire.

Teacher Commentary in the IEP: International Standards, Local Pressures

Peter Clements, International University of Japan

This presentation examines teachers' written commentary on student writing in an Intensive English Program (IEP) at an English-medium university in Japan. It draws on interviews with teachers and students and analyses of written comments to investigate how largely North American assumptions about writing pedagogy influence local standards and practices.

Teacher-Student Relationship: How Caring Is Enacted in the Feedback and Revision Process in an EFL College Composition Class

Given Lee, The University of Texas at Austin

This study explored how the teacher-student relationship might influence the feedback and revision process in a college composition classroom in Korea. Findings showed that building trust in each other played a mediating role in developing a caring relationship between teacher and student, which affected the feedback and revision process.

Teaching Scientific/Academic Writing to Multilingual, Multicultural, and Multidisciplinary Students: ICT Is the Answer

Arna Peretz, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev

This paper describes the incorporation and role of information and communication technologies in multilingual, multicultural graduate-level scientific/academic writing courses at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. The use of electronic discourses, on-screen marking techniques, and course-supporting Web site are described, and the advantages of online communication and evaluation results are presented.

Teaching Truly International Business Writing Through Genre Analysis and Role Plays

Jocelyn T. Graf, Hanyang University

In a business email course in Korea, learners analyzed googled sample texts to describe a genre and collect useful expressions, then did writing role plays that emphasized intercultural communication. In the final weeks, they wrote without instructor guidance and reviewed another team’s email in a formal presentation.

Technology, Process and Feedback: An Integrated Curriculum-Wide Writing Program at a Japanese University

Mark D. Sheehan, Shizuoka University of Arts and Culture

Tae Kudo, KinjoGakuin University

Michael Shawback, Ritsumeikan University

Survey results of students' experiences learning EFL writing in an integrated curriculum-wide writing program servicing thousands of students at a major Japanese university will be presented along with an examination of student use of technology to aid in writing. Discussion of feedback using an online system will also be included.

The Adaptation of an English Spellchecker for Japanese Writers

Roger Mitton, Birkbeck, University of London

Takeshi Okada, Tohoku University

Comparison of a corpus of English spelling errors made by Japanese writers with a corpus of errors made by native speakers revealed some distinctively Japanese error patterns. A spellchecker that had been developed for native speakers was adapted to cope with these errors. This produced a modest improvement in correcting Japanese-made errors.

The Application of the Six Thinking Hats Method in Teaching Writing to Mature Students

Sabina Nowak, Jagiellonian University

In this presentation I will propose an alternative way of teaching essay sub-genres which will be based on my research that was conducted in a specific Polish context. I will discuss how I used Edward de Bono's Six Thinking Hats method as heuristics for invention and feedback in teaching writing skills and how I recognised that this one approach can can be useful when combined with other approaches that address different aspects of writing.

The Culture of Writing of L2 Writers in Transition From School to Higher Education

Lee Lai Fong, University Teknologi MARA

ESL writers in transition from secondary schools to higher education deal with different cultures of writing. This paper focuses on the accounts of five ESL students in a matriculation programme about their writing, factors that impact them and their writing and negotiation of the transition in line with sociocultural theory.

The Dynamics of Beliefs About Foreign Language Writing: Listening to Students' and Teachers' Voices

Rosa M. Manchón, University of Murcia

Liz Murphy, University of Murcia

Julio Roca de Larios, University of Murcia

This study investigated the dynamics of 15 university EFL learners´ beliefs about L2 writing before and after completing an EAP course. Changes were observed in the students´ beliefs about themselves, the nature of writing, and the role of the writing teacher. These findings will be discussed from a socio-cognitive angle.

The Effect of Critical Reading on Writing Autonomy of EFL Learners

Omid Mazandarani, Islamic Azad University

Massood Yazdani Moghaddam, Islamic Azad University

Mohammad Ali Nasrollahi

The purpose of this study was to determine whether critical reading would improve writing ability of Pre-University students or not. Hence, a group of seventy homogeneous students were selected. At the end of the treatment,in order to capture the probable significant relationship between critical reading and writing autonomy a t-test was used. The results rejected the null hypothesis, and indicated that critical positively affected students' wring ability.

The Effect of Metacognitive Strategies on Achievement and Retention in Developing EFL Writing Skills

Osman Dulger, Selçuk University

A metacognitive strategies based approach to the teaching of paragraph writing and development with an emphasis on planning, monitoring, and evaluation was applied to 77 young adults to find out the relationship between metacognitive strategies and EFL/ESL writing skills. The results confirmed the conclusion that metacognitive strategies contribute to the development of writing skills.

The Effectiveness of Teaching Japanese Students the Overall and Paragraph-Level Structural Differences Between Japanese and English Academic Writing

Michinobu Watanabe, Toin Gakuen Secondary School of Education

The mandatory writing proficiency examination at a Californian university is a major hurdle for many Japanese students there. I tutored two of them in the overall and paragraph-level structural differences between Japanese and English academic writing. Later I found no meaningful differences between their pre-tutorial failed essays and post-tutorial successful essays except in structure.

The Effects of Blog-Based Peer Response in an EFL Writing

Hung-chun Wang, National Taiwan Normal University

This study attempts to investigate EFL learners' attitudes towards blog-based peer editing, and the effects of blog-based peer response on EFL learners’revision types and writing outcomes. Four research issues were inspected: (a) What are EFL learners’attitudes towards the effectiveness of blog-based peer editing; (b) What are the advantages and disadvantages of blog-based peer editing; (c) How can EFL learners’blog-based peer response be classified; (d) How do EFL learners make use of peer response to improve their writing? Based on the findings, pedagogical implications were also discussed.

The Effects of Genre-Based Instruction on Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of EFL Writing

Abbas Zare-ee, Kashan University

The present quasi-experimental study examines the effects of genre-based instruction on some qualitative and quantitative aspects of a group of Iranian EFL learners' writing performance. Indices of EFL writing quality and writing quantity are used to compare the performance of the experimental and the control group.

The Effects of Instruction on Analytical Summary Writing: The Choice of Strategies and Lexical Knowledge

Yoko Kanazawa, Musashi Institute of Technology

The present study aims to examine strategies used for analytical summary writing and the effects of instruction on Japanese learners of English with different levels of lexical knowledge. The study suggests that the lexical threshold level to utilize strategies effectively could be over the 3000 word family level.

The Efficacy of EFL Students' Error Correction Strategies in Utilizing Different Types of Teacher Written Feedback

Chittima Kaweera, Suranaree University of Technology

Siriluck Usaha, Suranaree University of Technology

This experimental research reports Thai EFL students' error correction strategies in utilizing different types of teacher written feedback, effects of each type of feedback on students' writing of different genres, how the students with different English proficiency levels respond to the feedback, and their attitudes towards their own correction strategies.

The Enhancement of Student Performance at Fort Hare University Through the Language and Writing Advancement Program

Thembinkosi Twalo, Fort Hare University

Language and Writing Advancement Program (LWAP) is one of the programs offered at FortHare’s Teaching and Learning Centre (TLC). It forms part of the peer assisted student services (PASS) programs. PASS offers an integrated approach to learning as it covers eight learning advancement programs.

The Epistemological Process, Way of Knowing, in Higher Education and ESL Writing

Akiko Ota, Portland State University/Portland Community College

In American higher education system, the epistemological process of college/university students are integrated into curriculum and students are expected to improve their epistemological process and their critical thinking skills. However, international students from different communication strategies may not understand such expectations in higher educations. This paper explores the epistemological process that western higher education system targets and make suggestions for ESL writers in the process of critical thinking and writing argument papers.

The Expression of Causality in EFL Writing

Myung-Hye Huh, Korea University

There has been very little work done in "the expression of causality" in EFL writing. Only recently, the use of two models of causality was examined in depth in a study by Reynolds (2002). Following closely the concept of two models of causality, the present study examines how usage of causality markers is characterized in the essays of EFL college writers.

The First Steps to Writing Fluency: Paragraphs and Process Writing

Junko Otoshi, Gunma Prefectural Women's University

Mark D. Sheehan, Shizuoka University of Arts and Culture

Hiroko Sugimura, Ritsumeikan University

Using a process-oriented approach to paragraph writing, the present study examines the benefits of pre-task discussion activities in aiding students in first draft writing. Results of an examination of fluency, complexity, accuracy, and idea generation in Compare and Contrast paragraphs produced by Japanese university students will be given.

The Impact of Japanese Learners' Self-Revisions and Peer Revisions on Their Written Compositions in English

Manami Suzuki, Dokkyo University

The present study examines second language writers’ self-revisions and peer revisions and the effects on their L2 written products. I assessed the improvement of participants’ revisions by two levels of evaluation, a macro-level (holistic) and a micro-level (specific) assessment. I report the results of the study in this presentation.

The Impact of Peer Review Training on Teacher Written Commentary

Hui-Tzu Min, National ChengKung University

Liu and Hansen (2002) recommended writing instructors to use the same peer review guidance sheet and follow the same procedure while providing teacher commentary. This study examined if an EFL writing instructor practiced what she preached in her written commentary. The results revealed a positive impact on her commenting skills.

The Influence of Teacher Response on Students' Revision

Chiu-Yun Li, National Chiao TungUniversity

Chih-Hua Kuo, National Chiao TungUniversity

Teachers' written response to students' drafts is essential for students' writing development. This study investigates the effects of two response types--direct correction and question-based response--on high school students' essay writing and revision practice. Students' think-aloud protocol reveals their revising process in relation to each type of response.

The Writing of Replies to Letters of Complaint in ESL Contexts: Bankers' and Teachers' Views

Puvenesvary Muthiah, Northen University of Malaysia

This paper will provide insights into how the writing of ‘replies to letters of complaint’ is viewed by both bank officers and ESL teachers in the Malaysian contexts. The methodology used to investigate this is verbal protocols. The paper will also highlight the implications of the findings for the teaching of such texts.

Thinking Skills Reflected in the Argumentative Essays of Some Freshman College Students: A Descriptive Analysis

Eden Regala Flores, De La Salle University-Manila

This study aims to analyze and describe the ability of the first year students of the De La Salle University-Manila to demonstrate critical thinking/writing skills in their argumentation paper using (a) modified Toulmin’s (1958) model of argument and (b) holistic score. A replication of the rubric used by Knudson (1992) is adapted here. This paper provides some guidelines for teaching practice in light of these findings.

Three Approaches to Writing in Japanese-As-a-Foreign-Language Instruction in U.S. Universities

Akiko Mitsui, Carnegie Mellon University

This presentation will describe three prevalent approaches to teaching writing in Japanese-as-a-Foreign-Language programs in the U.S. The approaches differ in their theoretical assumptions and beliefs about writing and teaching writing as well as in their teaching practice, as revealed in written documents viewed as products of their curricular decision-making.

Threshold to Transfer Writing Skills From L1 to L2

Fumihiko Ito, Gunma National College of Technology

Over the past two decades, the relationship between L1 and L2 writing skills has been investigated by many L2 composition specialists (e.g., Carson , Carrell, Silberstein, Kroll, & Kuehn, 1990; Cumming, 1989; Hirose & Sasaki, 1994; Pennington & So, 1993; Sasaki & Hirose, 1996). However, less emphasis has been placed on the threshold level in L2 writing, below which sparse L2 proficiency blocks transfer of L1 writing skills to the writing of L2 texts. Therefore, this study examines whether low L2 proficiency produces a short-circuit effect on the relationship between L1 and L2 writing skills. Based on 317 Japanese (L1) and English (L2) essays, and English proficiency scores gathered in a four-year Japanese university, the presenter examines the threshold level for L1 writing skills to transfer to L2.

Timed Writing: A Tool for Improving the Academic Writing of Japanese University Students

Harry E. Creagen , Hokusei Gakuen University

This research reports on the effects of the regular use of 30 minute timed writing with second year Japanese university students enrolled in an academic essay writing class at a private Japanese university. Comparing the first and last writings showed improvement in the aspects of academic writing studied.

Toward Successful Overseas Graduate Writing: Suggestions for Japanese EAP Education

Mayumi Fujioka , Kinki University

Akira Tajino, Kyoto University

This study discusses academic practices to be addressed in Japanese EAP classrooms toward successful accomplishment of overseas graduate writing. Interview and written data from six Japanese graduate students in the U.S. suggest the importance of interaction with professors and peers as well as the development of effective reading/writing strategies.

Towards a Practical Approach to Help Students Avoid Plagiarism

Fahimeh Marefat, Allameh Tabatabaii University

Inspired by a process approach, the researcher ran workshops implementing different controlled assignments to lead students to practice appropriate source use on multiple drafts. The participants were twenty four Iranian EFL undergraduates . The process approach proved successful at developing the necessary skills in synthesizing source materials into student writing.

Translation as a Way of Learning Second Language Writing: An Approach Through M. A. K. Halliday's Functional Grammar

Hsuehching Shih, National Chiayi University

This study addresses a few grammatical problem in translation as a kind of second language writing. This study analyzes approximately 40 EFL college students' translation assignments focusing mainly on the assignments of translating Chinese into English to understand the student translators' problems on the level of information structure, thematic structure, and cohesion.

Tutor Trainings at a Japanese University Writing Center

Mika Shimura, Waseda University

Waseda University Writing Center was funded in 2003 and is the first Writing Center in Japan. Tutors who are graduate students offer sessions to support undergraduate students. This study reports how those tutors help students to improve papers after going through tutor trainings that staffs at the Center offer.

Users' Attitudes Toward Criterion, an Online Writing Evaluation Program

Steve Cornwell, Osaka Jogakuin College

Scott Johnston, Osaka Jogakuin College

Hiroko Yoshida, Osaka University of Economics

This presentation describes and analyzes administrator, teacher and students' attitudes toward using the online writing evaluation program, Criterion, at OsakaJogakuin College. By better understanding attitudes keeping students from using Criterion and teachers from encouraging its use, changes can be implemented, after which the effectiveness of the software can better be evaluated.

Using Comic Strips as Writing Prompts: In Assessment and Classroom

Fang-Ying Kuo, Tamkang University

The presenter will talk about using comic strip as writing prompts and discuss how to make comic strips work as better prompts that could be used in both writing tests and classroom assignments through the six variables in designing writing prompts proposed by Kroll and Reid in 1994 and 1997.

Using Social Networking Services for Language Practice in EFL Classrooms: Practices at Japanese Colleges

Keita Kikuchi, Waseda University

In this study, 135 Japanese college students were asked to use English to write at least one blog every week using a social networking service (SNS) for a semester. Based on the results of this project, the author discusses both the great potential and concerns for using SNS in EFL writing contexts.

Visualizing the Learner's ZPD Through Concept Maps: Scaffolding Academic Writing Using Cognitive and Sociocultural Learning Theories

Min Kim, Carleton University

Interdisciplinary commensurabilities between cognitive and sociocultural theories of learning (cf. Sfard, 1998) are the framework for this research. Instructional visual design, expert visual learning theory, and language learning theories support the application of concept mapping (Novak & Gowin, 1984) to scaffold academic writing in the English for academic purposes classroom.

What Should We Do and What Can We Do? Chinese EFL Academic Writing Instructors' Roles and Limitations

Shi Mingming, Nanjing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics

This paper analyzes the roles and limitations of the Chinese EFL academic writing instructors so as to gain an insight into the problems of academic English writing instruction in the Chinese context and find some solutions. The result suggests that further education for academic writing instructors in China is necessary for the high quality academic writing instruction.

What's Unique About Teaching Biomedical Science Writing to Graduate Students in Korea

Jocelyn T. Graf, Hanyang University

We present a curriculum designed collaboratively by biomedical and English writing professors for students with a narrow proficiency who are required to write professional correspondence, conference proposals, and journal articles for international publication. Students analyze sample texts contributed by their labs and write texts meant for real tasks.

Where's the Student Voice in Academic Writing Feedback?

Simon Stevens, The British Council

Much of the literature on responding to students’ academic writing focuses on what teachers say and do with a predominant focus on teacher commentary as the ‘only’ response to student texts (Mathison Fife & O’Neill, 2001) rather than explorations of the student’s voice in this process (Leki, 2001).

Who is "You"? and Who is "We"?

M. Sidury Christiansen , Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne

Mira Bekar, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University

This paper demonstrates the interchangeable use of “I,” “you,” and “we” in written discourse. The analysis suggests that pronouns are markers of people’s emotional state, social status, and interests. The results show the uncertainty of usage of personal pronouns with the ultimate goal of keeping social distance to protect integrity.

World Englishes and the Teaching of Writing

Gary French, Chukyo University

This study examines the teaching of L2 writing from a world Englishes perspective. A review of Japanese student essays suggest that intelligibility most often broke down in the conclusion. A framework of Written International Standards of Organization (W.I.S.O.) and a class curriculum to achieve international intelligibility while maintaining the creative influences of the local variety of English will be proposed.

Writer's Block and L2 Revising Strategies

Abdulaziz Alnofal, College of Telecom & Information

Using a quantitative online survey, this study investigates the effect of writer's block in the revising strategies Saudi ESL students apply when writing in L2. Findings suggest that participants revise as they draft, make several revisions, revise to improve content and language, and give more attention to spelling and grammar.

Writing Border-Crossing Narratives in a Second Language: A Case Study of a Bilingual Woman's Writing Practices Between Words

Sumiko Taniguchi, University of Technology, Sydney

This study takes a narrative approach to L2 writing research, utilizing narrative both as data and as a research tool. I present a longitudinal case study of a migrant woman from China to Japan, focusing on her bilingual identity transformation process through writing her L1-based experiences in L2.

Writing for Critical Reflection through Blogging

Hui-Chin Yeh, National Yun Lin University of Science and Technology

Shih-hsien Yang, National Formosa University

Grounded in the theories of critical reflection and community of practice, the goal of this presentation aimed to explore the applications of using blogs as a reflective platform in EFL student teachers’ training processes. The purpose of this study was to explore how student teachers, who were learning to teach English in Taiwan, made use of blogs to critically reflect on their learning processes and investigate the impact on student teachers’ growth.

Writing Portfolios: Impact on the Teaching, Learning and Assessment of Writing in Hong Kong Secondary Classrooms

Albert Wong Tai Yuen, University of Hong Kong

This paper examines the implementation of writing portfolios in the language curriculum in a secondary school in Hong Kong. Based on classroom observation, interviews of teachers and students and document analysis, it provided a detailed picture of the impact upon the students and teachers as they implemented the change in the writing curriculum.

Writing the Pacific Way: A Critical-Pragmatic Approach to Writing English for Academic Purposes

Josta van Rij-Heyligers, University of Auckland

The paper briefly discusses the different approaches to teaching academic writing, argues for a critical-pragmatic approach informed by intercultural practices, and provides some examples of ‘home-grown’ pedagogies applicable to teaching academic writing to EAL students. It also presents recent developments in language support across UOA services that provide EAL students with the flexibility needed in their hectic degree programme.